Simple Theory May Explain Dark Matter

Posted June 11th, 2013 at 5:54 pm (UTC+0)
2 comments

An artist's impression shows the Milky Way galaxy. The blue halo of material surrounding the galaxy indicates the expected distribution of the mysterious dark matter. (ESO/Calçada)

Artist’s impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The blue halo of material surrounding the galaxy indicates the expected distribution of dark matter. (ESO/Calçada)

Scientists at Vanderbilt University believe dark matter, an invisible substance that makes up almost 85 percent of our universe, might be made out of particles that have an unusual, donut-shaped electromagnetic field called an anapole.

A number of theories concerning dark matter have been developed over the years, but the Vanderbilt University scientists have come up with a relatively simple theory to explain what has so far been unexplainable.

Top image: Comparison of an anapole field in red with common electric and magnetic dipole field, blue. Middle & Bottom: Anapole field - red and Dipole field - blue (Michael Smeltzer, Vanderbilt University)

Top image: Comparison of an anapole field in red with common electric and magnetic dipole field, blue. Middle & Bottom: Anapole field – red and Dipole field – blue (Michael Smeltzer, Vanderbilt University)

In a paper entitled Anapole Dark Matter, they suggest dark matter particles are surrounded by a rare form of electromagnetism.

“There are a great many different theories about the nature of dark matter. What I like about this theory is its simplicity, uniqueness, and the fact that it can be tested,” said Professor Robert Scherrer, a theoretical physicist at Vanderbilt University who performed a detailed analysis along with post-doctoral fellow Chiu Man Ho.

The two physicists believe dark matter might be made out of a type of elementary electrically neutral particle called the Majorana fermion (or Majorana Particle). The existence of this particle was predicted by Italian physicist Ettore Majorana in 1937, but has so far escaped detection.

Fermions – predicted by Paul Dirac in 1928 and named after the renowned physicist Enrico Fermi – are thought to be basic particles that scientists consider to be the building blocks of matter.  Some scientists think the Marjorana fermion may be a neutrino, but they haven’t been able determine the basic nature of this unique and mysterious particle.

While a number of physicists have also previously suggested that dark matter is composed of Majorana particles, Scherrer and Ho performed detailed calculations they believe prove the particles are uniquely suitable to have a rare, donut-shaped type of electromagnetic field called an anapole.

Ettore Majorana - Circa 1906. The Marjoran fermion or particle was predicted by him in 1937, but so far has escaped detection. (Wikimedia Commons)

Ettore Majorana – Circa 1906. The Marjoran fermion or particle was predicted by him in 1937, but so far has escaped detection. (Wikimedia Commons)

The Majorana fermions are difficult to detect, according to Scherrer and Ho, because this anapole field gives the particles certain properties that make them quite different from others that have more common fields comprised of two poles – north and south, positive and negative.

“Most models for dark matter assume that it interacts through exotic forces that we do not encounter in everyday life,” said Scherrer. “Anapole dark matter makes use of ordinary electromagnetism that you learned about in school: the same force that makes magnets stick to your refrigerator or makes a balloon rubbed on your hair stick to the ceiling. Further, the model makes very specific predictions about the rate at which it should show up in the vast dark matter detectors that are buried underground all over the world. These predictions show that soon the existence of anapole dark matter should either be discovered or ruled out by these experiments.”

Scientists developed the concept of dark matter in the 1930s, while trying to explain discrepancies in the rotational rate of galactic clusters. Since then, astronomers have also found similar inconsistencies in the rate at which stars rotate around individual galaxies. Assuming they contain a large amount of invisible dark matter is the most straightforward way to explain these discrepancies.

2 Responses to “Simple Theory May Explain Dark Matter”

  1. Vince VanValkenburg says:

    Making Something from Nothing////// A unified electromagnetic and gravitational field theory of an amateur subatomic particle physicist. ********** Vince VanValkenburg and Daniel VanValkenburg
    INTRODUCTION:
    It was only yesterday, that our imaginations had not even imagined today’s technology. We have been very fortunate to have the great mathematicians and scientists to improve our lives and life expectancies. Hope has never been greater than it is now. Technology is advancing faster than it can be applied. However, is it possible that we may have overlooked a key component of the universe—something so small and simple that we would find it hard to believe? After all, those brilliant minds with all of their education, intelligence, and budgets could not possibly miss something so simple—or could they? Even Einstein was willing to admit, “No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.”
    I cannot condemn traditional education because it has accomplished a great task bringing knowledge to the masses. However, it has by nature inhibited imagination by trust in the establishment for truth of what we are taught. This has been demonstrated throughout the history of science. Oops, the universe does not revolve around our Earth. Gee whizz, we won’t disintegrate when we go faster than sound. Recall that medication, it is more harmful than beneficial. Trust me, it is completely safe. I have always found the question: (We have been doing it this way for X years, why change now?) most offensive to me.
    I have been very fortunate to observe while working around some of the world’s greatest minds. Most of these minds have one thing in common—a traditional education. Could such tradition have stifled the discovery of a simple answer to questions that have remained for hundreds of years?
    Such great minds do not all think alike. Each has a personality. Each has a slightly different approach to problem solving. I have seen that the most successful problem solvers look first to the simplest explanation, before reaching for extremes. In contrast, we measure a person’s intelligence by determining how much information a mind can hold and how it can apply the information to solve increasingly difficult problems. The academic machine is well grounded in history, tradition, and mathematical logic. Even still, this machine has its flaws. With each scientific or phenomenon discovery another assumption is verified or discredited. Our knowledge keeps inching toward a complete understanding of the Universe.
    When approaching a problem in science, mathematical equilibrium is the final word of validation. Some scientists have successfully manipulated math to measure and describe unexplainable circumstances and phenomenon in the universe. Perhaps, this is a good way to deal with a problem at hand, but this method does not necessarily explain the physical reasons of why the computations work. Measure (even approximate or wrong) is the first requirement of existence, be it mass, energy or unexplainable phenomenon. However, our limited vision restricts our knowledge of what is beyond.
    I have tried to understand how the Universe works by picturing it from outside and wondering how it could be made. How could it be made and support in position all the mass within?
    I have read of prominent scientist calling string and membrane theories, “M” theory. Stating “M” stands for “Magic”.
    I have read of multiple universe theories but find them a far stretch after being taught our universe contains all that exist. We just don’t realize the vastness and contents beyond our sight.
    I have read of expansion of our universe including planets proportionately being the force that creates gravity. This would require the Earth’s radius to increase 32 feet each and every second without compromising the density. The necessity of consistent density while keeping mass and space increasing proportionate to maintain balance of gravity raises my doubt for credibility of this expansion theory. The math doesn’t balance for me. However, I am not a math whiz.
    All of the above is to say: maybe we have let things become too difficult for us. Maybe, we’ve bypassed some of the truly simple solutions. I wish for you to see one possibility. This idea may seem a bit complicated at first, but I believe it will actually simplify our understanding of the universe. “All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them,” (Galileo). Eventually, I believe it will draw more people into scientific careers by simplifying or enabling more people to visualize how the universe works.
    I expect doubts and questions, but I ask that you lower your defenses and carefully think through the possibilities I am suggesting with an open mind. You may even learn something that changes your outlook on life. Galileo said, “I have never met a man so ignorant that I couldn’t learn something from him.” With this in mind, what have you to lose? By letting your guard down, I mean that you must allow yourself the freedom to doubt. “Doubt is the father of invention,” (Galileo). That doubt that might bloom into an idea that; may save lives, solve global warming, provide cheap, green fuel, or even alleviate world hunger.
    How is it possible to warp space that has no mass?
    1. Gravity
    2. Magnetism
    3. Light
    4. Vacuum
    5. Electricity
    6. Quarks, wimps, muons, neutrinos, etc.
    7. Black holes
    8. Acceleration
    9. More questions
    1. Gravity
    How does a planet manage to pull everything within affected proximity to the surface? How does gravity really do that? For years, we have been taught there is some kind of force reaching through even the empty vacuum of space to pull heavenly bodies together. We envision some force pulling on us to keep us from floating away from this spinning earth. Our conclusion is space is empty (a vacuum) therefore made of nothing and thus friction does not exist within it. Hence (action at a distance), I would propose that space must be made of something, or it would not be there. The distance between two objects in space must be made of something, or it simply does not exist and is imaginary. Sound too simple?
    I have an idea. All we really know about friction in space is that we cannot detect it. Without further investigation and research, the “Pioneer Anomaly” could be evidence of friction in space. The two Pioneer spacecraft seem to be slowing as they travel in opposite directions away from our sun. They are short by such a small part of the predicted distance of their trip prediction it was years before it was noticed. Maybe we could work the math to determine the atmospheric resistance to a given drag coefficient and cross sectional area of the craft to calculate the density of space.
    This anomaly has been thoroughly examined by multitudes of scholars for many years without a proven specific answer. Most of the possibilities have been ruled out. Many speak of a (new physics) as a strong possibility. However, it may be ages before the truth is discovered.
    Imagine that space is actually densely packed with an absolutely fundamental particle—an aether. This is not a new idea, but I would propose that there exist specific properties of this particle that may validate its existence once and for all. Imagine these particles that make up the dense aether of space are cold, clear, and magnetic spheres with distinct north and south poles. As I explain, you may find that these particles would not have to be clear or necessarily cold, but they must be magnetic and spherical (or appear in such a shape as to hinder friction).
    When considering friction between magnetic particles, we must keep in mind that the force necessary to squeeze together two magnets of opposing magnetic fields is conversely returned upon departing. This would render space almost frictionless except when accelerating. I suggest that these particles just happen to be the approximate average size (volume) of an electron, allowing them to squeeze into the tiniest places. These tiny places would include the space around those comparatively gigantic protons, all around the electrons, and into space as we know it everywhere. Everything, from the tiny electron, to the largest mass in the universe is being squeezed into shape by the alignment of these tiny magnetic spheres. In fact, I suggest they have the mass of one half of electron mass and are flexible, stretchable and compressible. It is this vast sea of particles that supports our universe. They are the very fabric suspended within all that we see.
    The basic principles of this hypothesis were conceived and written around six years ago. Today October 16, 2012 and within the last month I have read recently written articles stating: NASA has begun work on faster than light propulsion and noted mathematicians have applied formulas to Einstein’s famous E=mc2 formula to allow faster than light travel.
    To test this hypothesis, I would like to acquire a few thousand quarter inch spherical magnets with color coded north and south poles. Carefully consider how fifty of these spheres would string together pole to pole. Then consider how several strings would fit together forming a cubic volume of spheres. Taking note of the pattern of colors, how would the pattern change if a larger object of nonmagnetic material were placed within this cube? Perhaps, this would offer a picture of a proton. With more nonmagnetic objects added, it may offer a picture of a molecule, and so on. The alignment and displacement of these particles is a gigantic model of how mass and energy would warp space.
    I believe that this sea of electron-sized magnetic particles envelopes any and all mass as we know it. These particles are squeezing with all their magnetic might to hold every galaxy, star, planet, moon, molecule, and atom together. I believe this magnetic aether is the cause of gravity. The larger the circumference of a planet, the more magnetic spheres are present to fill the space around it, and when magnets come together, their strength is combined, thus increasing the gravitational pull. Also, the denser an object, the less aether particles are within to align with those outside the mass to lessen the gravity at the surface. Despite the drastic nature of what I am suggesting, the laws of mathematics can be applied with ease to authenticate this hypothesis. Gravity is a push from above. I saw a documentary about Einstein. I believe that it stated in 1926 Einstein said gravity is a push from above. I have not been able to find it in the writings I have read about him. If I am correct, a gravitational field would be the extent of the polarity alignment of these particles caused by the mass interfering with their normal alignment without the mass. Again, this is how mass and energy curves space.
    If our universe is infinite, there can only be one. If it is finite and only one, either nothing exists beyond or of many possibilities such as other universes. Maybe there are large beings peering through a microscope watching our every move. Cue the “Twilight Zone” theme music. Our perception is limited by our observational limits. The inventions of telescopes that view electromagnetic waves beyond both ends of the visible spectrum have fueled new interest in cosmic science. If the universe is finite and nothing exists outside of it, time also would fail to exist. Could a void of everything, including the aether I speak of, within the universe be consistent with the conditions beyond the universe? If there is no space and mass I would imagine time would also not exist. Could there be such a bubble or tunnel lacking everything that exists within the universe? Could the universe be folding into itself? Dependent on velocity of mass traveling through this aether, could there be a cavitation leaving a lack of gravity or aether surrounding the mass that would slow time or stop time if the cavitation were completely surrounding the mass say, at light speed? Can we create a hole within the universe with electromagnetic technology? We can certainly create the positron.
    2. Magnetism
    A magnetic field is an area in which a magnet has enough strength to reach out, retrieve, and hold on to a piece of material of magnetic base. Actually, this field extends far beyond the point described, but this explanation will work for now.
    I believe that magnetic material does not magically reach through nothing to pull another magnetic material. Instead, I propose that the only true magnets in the universe are the small, clear, and cold particles that fill all the space between all objects of mass.
    In a dense sea of these particles, any object larger than the tiny magnetic particles will distort the natural order or arrangement of the polarities of the immediately surrounding aether particles. This distortion lessens with distance.
    The magnet that we know today is not a magnet at all. The nuclei of what we call a magnetic material, is surrounded by the magnetic aether described in the previous section. In this respect, it is no different from any other material. The difference between what we know as a magnet and any other material is the ability to arrange the polarity of the particles that make up this aether. As a mass has a greater amount of like aether poles facing a given direction within, the greater the strength of the magnetic field surrounding the material.
    When two magnets with opposite poles facing align this aether between them, they act as any magnet material and pull together. When two magnetic materials get close enough to attract each other (due to this uniform alignment), the magnetic aether particles between, being of such low density, simply roll out of the way for the two masses to come together to extend the field around them as one field.
    A magnetic field is the alignment of the poles of these particles to face a given direction. The field aligns the previously described particles north/south extending from the poles then out and around returning to the opposite pole. This is demonstrated in visibility of flux lines shown by iron filings sprinkled over plastic sheet covering a magnet with pole to pole paralleling the sheet.
    Recently I observed a YouTube video of a demonstration called quantum locking. This demonstration showed a disk cooled by liquid nitrogen floating above permanent magnets. I do not know the polarity arrangements. I have many questions and I would like to see several experiments related to this process. Some peculiarities of this demonstration were as follows: the disk could float above the magnets approximately 1/2 inch and not be parallel. In some of the dynamic demonstrations the super cooled disk would hold its placed position while following a circular track of magnets sandwiched between clear plastic sheets. Most peculiar to me was how the disk could maintain a distance above or distance suspended below the track of magnets while circling the track)
    This behavior leads me to believe the aether surrounding the disk could be a frozen field of air and aether particles aligning to the polarity of the magnetic disk. The consistency of the field of aether is stiffer as the temperature is lowered and holds the air molecules in place between the disk and track. I desire to see many experiments done in conjunction with the demonstration, such as in a vacuum and micro gravity. How would light or the electromagnetic spectrum behave between the track and disk? We must consider the ambient heat energy being transferred to the disk.
    I have assembled many shapes using 5mm spherical magnets. Many large hollow shapes of one layer of spherical magnets seemed impossible, but were actually very sturdy structures. Many shapes of magnetically bound spheres were almost unaffected by close proximities of similar and other shapes. Those shapes bring to mind some of the inert elements. Others react with such vigor to remind me of ionic bonds. All to ask, “Could everything be constructed from such aether particles? Is this the real A-tom? Of course I must ask, what is the aether particle made of?”
    Let us say the aether particle is one half the mass of an electron, and two of them compressed to the volume of one, is an electron. Let’s say it has just a slight magnetic field and together they produce a proportionately stronger field. They may have a spin around their axis between their magnetic poles according to their temperature. The moving of their polarity will send a wave of pole shift to their surrounding particles. In a vacuum a void of one aether particle in any space is a positron (the antiparticle of an electron). The void is a true positive electromagnetic force waiting to be filled. Giving the electron has the mass of 1/1836 of a proton an accumulated void of 1836 particles would be equivalent the antiproton.
    3. Light
    Is light really a wave and a particle? One of the most common light experiments in science is the double-slit demonstration. After cutting a tiny slit in a piece of paper with a razor blade, light is shown through the slit onto a background behind it. The pattern of light displayed on this background shows to be consistent with the one slit. When, however, two slits are made very close side by side, the light shown through produces multiples of illuminated spots. This procedure is used to demonstrate that light behaves sometimes as a particle, and other times as a wave. While this seems to be the only accepted explanation, another possibility seems to explain this phenomenon just as well.
    The light from the Sun takes over eight minutes to reach the earth. The light starts at a point it travels in the direction that it is aimed and in a matter of time, it reaches its destination to illuminate an area of mass. At this point, the light stops or at least slows down and/or reflects. Light is traditionally explained as an electromagnetic wave with a frequency or wavelength that makes it visible to the human eye. If a magnet could withstand the centrifugal forces of rotation of its poles at rpm equal to light frequency, would it not produce light waves? With absolutely nothing between the source and destination of light, one must question the behavior of light in this way. If, however, one would imagine a sea of tiny magnetic particles between the source and destination, this behavior makes much more sense. Once again, these tiny particles would make up most of the volume of lesser dense masses. The source would oscillate the polarities of the tiny magnetic particles which would initiate a wave of polarity oscillation that would travel through the particles. This achievement could be caused by an energetic mass moving the particles positions and or polarities. Upon reaching an observer, the wave of oscillating polarities would excite receptors in the eye. The intensity of electromagnetic waves would be directly proportional to the magnitude and frequency of the shift in polarity. In essence, this theory suggests that light is solely made up of electromagnetic waves or ripples of polarity oscillation of the aether particles. The particles must oscillate to carry the wave. In this manner requiring the particle oscillation I would credit the idea of light requiring particles and a wave. However, it discredits the idea of a particle (photon) traveling the distance from source to destination. It renders photons to be a packet or unit of electromagnetic wave energy only.
    It would be these aether particles that make gravitational lensing possible by providing a path around an obstacle. In a cubic volume exclusively of magnetic spheres, the achievement of zero potential energy due to magnetic force, requires the polarities to be parallel and balanced in opposite direction strings. These polarity strings can only change direction by energy or mass interference. The mass could be among the spheres or surrounding. Energy in the form of electromagnetic waves no matter their frequency must pass through the aether at light speed (c) until reaches mass or opposing energy. Pure electromagnetic waves do not propel the aether, they just alter the polarities.
    Scientists have used the intersection of two light beams to lift particles. It seems to me that the oscillating light waves would have to hold the aether particles around the particles trapping the particle. I would like to see six low powered lasers with equal power, wavelength, and beam diameter placed on an adjustable rigging. The rigging or mounting frame should accommodate all lasers to be placed accurately aiming them to one point at equal distance and angle from each other. This box frame should accommodate optics mounts allowing placement of lenses to be interchanged. Increasing or focusing the beam diameter with the lenses would allow adjustable beam diameter at a given power unit per area measurement. Placement of particles of differing size, mass and material within the beams intersection would, I believe, make for some interesting observation.
    The following experiment(s) dimensions may require significant changes to achieve desired results. It may be possible to achieve with smaller magnets and spheres with an added benefit of being more cost effective. The tank and shield could need altering also.
    To test this theory, one could attempt to emulate the one/two slit experiment using spherical magnets, a clear plastic container, and a bar magnet. The magnets could be one quarter inch or less cubes of neodymium magnets centered in clear plastic spheres of a diameter to make them neutrally buoyant in water, and should have the north hemispheres painted with a pattern of four narrow longitude stripes from the poles to the equators allowing observation of rotation in any direction. The clear plastic container could be thirty-six inches long, twelve inches more or less wide, and twelve inches deep. This container would be filled with the plastic magnetic spheres and then water would be added to decrease friction between spheres.
    Using a bar magnet with equal north and south pole faces it could be held between two bearings that would allow it to rotate poles toward the tank center. It must be of sufficient strength to change the polarity alignment of the spheres on the opposite side of the tank. Maybe a large diameter electromagnet would be easier. It must have variable frequency sinusoidal and strength variability. To begin the experiment, the magnet would be placed so that the faces of the magnet would be in close proximity and center of the thirty-six inch side of the container. Upon changing polarity toward the tank, one would observe patterns in the shifting polarity (noted by color) as the spherical magnets are affected by the larger rotating magnet. Take note of the sphere movements on the tank side opposite the rotating magnet.
    Next, one would place a sheet of iron, covering a large side of the tank, between the rotating magnet and the container. The iron should be just thick enough to block most of the magnetic waves from affecting the spherical magnets in the container. When this desired thickness is found, a “slit” measuring three inches tall by two inches could be cut into the iron sheet near its center. After placing the iron with the slit, between the rotating magnet and the container, the rotating magnet would be spun, and one would once again observe the patterns in the shifting polarity of the spherical magnets. The patterns of oscillating spheres on the opposite side of the container should mimic particle behavior as in the one-slit light experiment (I have observed this action on a small scale). The frequency of shift varying also affects the degree of pattern shift on the side opposite the actuating magnet. After making this observation, a second slit of the same size would be made parallel to the first. This second slit should be made two inches beside the first. After replacing the sheet and rotating the magnet, would the patterns observed mimic wave behavior as in the two slit light experiment? If the results of this experiment prove similar to the one/two slit light experiment, then it would provide evidence for the existence of aether made of magnetic particles. It may require the rotating magnet to be two magnets with the pole face areas to be the same dimensions to be equal to the slot dimensions. It may require opposite poles of the two magnets facing the slots. Light could then be explained entirely as waves of polarity changes in the aether that binds the universe. It is possible that a longer tank or slit size and spacing need to increase for desired results. The frequency of the polar shift would need to be quite slow compared to visible light frequency because of sphere diameter and mass. The areas of shifting spheres would be analogous to light reflection. A lesser degree of shift would be considered as absorption or lesser intensity of light propagation. Our eyes would still be analogous to radar receivers sensitive to visible light wavelengths. I don’t believe light could propagate in the absence of the aether particles.
    Redefining light energy as purely electromagnetic waves seems borderline heretical considering the volume of scientific theories that hinge on our current theory of light. For instance, Einstein’s theory of time dilation explained in his theory of general relativity may not be feasible in a world where light exists entirely as a wave. However, the oscillation of the particle polarities occurring in a wave propagating distance would explain the particle’s significance in how the particle/wave behavior could be observed.
    Scientists have recently announced that there is a lack of conditions very near our Sun that indicates the possibility of dark matter, giving rise to the idea dark matter may not exist. I believe the conditions credit the existence of dark matter. The activity of emitting such vast amounts of electromagnetic energy of such a broad spectrum blinds our ability to detect it. Such vast electron activity (raising and lowering of electron orbits, fission and fusion activity creating and collapsing positrons) releasing photons requires positrons (anti-matter). When the electron meets with a positron the electron splits into two aether particles (dark matter) and emit two photons.
    Another experiment would be to place two separate nonmagnetic objects larger than the plastic spheres of magnetic material deep in one end of the tank but touching each other. One object should have a string attached and be pulled slowly through the magnetic soup. Will the unattached object follow the object being dragged? This would mimic gravity between the two objects if this hypothesis is correct.

    4. A Vacuum:
    The nature of the particles in question would redefine the nature of what we know as a vacuum. The minute size of the particles in question would allow them to penetrate any known material. Pumping any container to what is known as a vacuum would simply remove all of the mass of atomic size or larger. As everything of atomic size is pumped out, the aether particles would penetrate the container and fill the void left by removing all other mass, while still applying an atmospheric pressure of zero. These particles cannot be captured or held in any mechanical container. The only feasible way to hold such particles would be with a field of energy. As more is understood about what an atom is beyond the Periodic Table description, more will be understood about how such aether particles fit within the structure of atoms.
    The permeation of the universe by the cosmic background radiation constantly oscillating the aether polarities in the infrared range is the best indicator of why the temperature in the vacuum of space is not absolutely zero. Particle decay to the aether particle level adding to the volume of aether, and mass movement is the only cause of force waves within the vacuum of space.
    The fact of observation causing changes to the observed or action at a distance gives rise to wonder when you consider space as being an absence of all mass. If there is no medium to travel through then there is no distance.
    5. Electricity
    Electricity is known as the flow of electrons. Whatever electrons may be, they must maintain a continuous flow, however briefly, from one point to another to be electricity.
    Coincidentally, the flow of electricity creates a magnetic field with polarity that circles the conductor perpendicular to the direction through which electrons are flowing. Furthermore, when the direction of the electric current is reversed, the polarity of the magnetic field is likewise reversed. This would imply that electric current flow has the power to align these tiny magnetic particles surrounding the conductor. Moreover, the strength of the magnetic field around the conductor is exclusively determined by current flow. Voltage has no effect unless it increases current flow. In theory, a very powerful magnetic field could be produced from a small amount of power (voltage multiplied by current flow determines wattage). The temperature of shaded mass in space is certainly low enough to accommodate super conducting materials of very low or no electrical resistance.
    Likewise, the passing of a conductor through a magnetic field will cause electricity to flow through a conductive circuit. In addition, the collapsing of a magnetic field surrounding a conductor can potentially increase the voltage, or pressure of electricity, until all of the electrons balance there pressure.
    Science has proven that electricity can flow through what is known as a vacuum. It has also shown that we can guide a beam of electrons through a vacuum with magnetic field energy. Thirdly, science has shown that magnetic fields do not cross. If the universe is in fact saturated with aether of tiny magnetic particles, then the most logical reason that these fields do not cross would be due to a division of the control of the polarities of these particles. It seems logical that two or more fields could combine and share a region of these particles and amplify the strength of the field they share or destabilize the particles between them until the fields align and extend to be a field within a field of sorts.
    In the field of solid state electronics, a negative electric charge is described as a mass holding an extra electron(s). The electrons have a potential to migrate to a positive charge. A positive charge is described as a hole(s) within or about mass with a potential to attract electrons. Also, there is a particle called a “positron” (a positron is described as a particle equal in mass and energy to an electron, but having a positive charge). Allegedly, both electron and positron are annihilated when they come together and emit photon(s). I propose that a positron is not a particle, but the lack of a particle and a true bubble or hole and space or absence of any mass to include the aether particle. This volume would then be a bubble of nothing within the universe and the conditions within would be as outside the universe. I suppose time could be gone within the bubble, lending credibility to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, since nothing exist beyond the Universe. That is, if you consider our Universe truly universal with the four dimensions (left/right, up/down, back/forth, and time). However, for me to honestly believe in time dilation based on nothing but mathematical reasoning and a few extremely small coincidences of slowing clocks is very challenging. I won’t say it’s impossible but I find in highly doubtful. I would say changing distance would be much more probable. If some of the aether particles separating origin and destination could be moved from the path ahead, part of the obstacle of distance could be lessened.

    6. Quarks, Wimps, Neutrinos, etc.
    What is a particle? We must use images in the field of quantum physics, because direct visibility is impossible for our eyes given the size and distance of the particles we want to see. Current scientific thought seems to assume that a particle must reflect or emit light unless it is dark matter. Despite the amount of money spent on supercollider technology, dark matter particles seem ever elusive and at the very best, short lived visibility. I believe the indirect visibility viewed should be considered phenomenon. If space is filled with tiny, clear, cold magnetic particles, then almost any object interrupting the natural order of the magnetic spheres would distort the path of light. Perhaps, some of these dark particles could be illuminated as collisions of two or more magnetic waves. It could be the movement of a line of these particles is necessary for electron flow. (I’ll explain in more detail later in this writing.) Maybe, what is being seen is a tiny space or absence of aether particles measuring just smaller than the volume of one of these tiny magnetic particles. Such a void could reflect or inhibit light waves. I believe the search for the Higgs Boson is almost impossible and consider it an aether particle(s). We have many Scientists working to prove its existence. Some of the phenomenon we observe but can’t explain are really the same and originate from the same conditions but, we have different names such as (Bosons, Wimps, etc. with opposites or antiparticles). As explained previously, the electron and positron collide to annihilate each other to produce two photons. Scientists have shown the muon particle decays to a photon and an electron. It seems to me this indicates that three aether particles are compressed to be a muon. The muon loses one aether particle to produce one photon and leaves an electron. Since only one photon is observed leaves me to wonder how the decay is possible without the presence of a positron. My explanation is that the added pressure of three aether particles move a string of aether particles leaving one photon and one electron on site and another photon at the other end of the string of aether particles as the end aether particle fills the void of a distant positron or compresses two aether particles to make another electron at a distance.
    All of our observations of sub atomic particles are based upon images produced by manmade sensors of electromagnetic energy. Measuring phenomenon and math become the faith for observers.
    7. Black Holes
    Considering the proposed aether of tiny magnetic particles, a black hole could be a void of even these particles or a tunnel formed as the universe folds or distorts as the masses and energy move through the space filled with aether particles being torn from their locations relative to their surrounding particles. Black holes are said to be composed of super dense mass with a gravity so strong it has the capability of preventing even light from escaping. Therefore we cannot see the proposed mass or past its event horizon. It could be completely void of all matter (visible and dark). Or, a super dense mass rotating and using its super gravity to suspend in its rotating field all of aether fields, all the galactic systems.
    Such a void would have to be of astronomical size and collapsing if it were to cause the appearance of the void swallowing everything in the neighborhood. It could be that our galaxy is spinning around a black hole. If these particles exist, centrifugal forces exerted by the spin of the galaxy could decrease gravity forces or even create a void of all matter, light, dark, etc. at the center of the galaxy. Gravitational lensing around such a mass leads me to believe we may be mistaken about light not escaping from a black hole. Instead, it does not enter and it just alters the path to go around.
    8. Acceleration
    Why does acceleration feel so much like gravity? In an accelerating vehicle we get the sensation of being pushed by the back of our seats even in the vacuum of space. The idea of distortion of the gravitational field around an accelerating object in space adds credibility to the aether particle theory. Direction change or acceleration of an object in uniform motion distorts the field surrounding the object actually changing its gravity field from uniformly surrounding the object until acceleration ceases. If the aether particles in front of an accelerating craft could be held away, it seems the sensation of acceleration could be eliminated by shielding the opposing field from contacting the craft.

    9. Remaining Questions: The Atom, Molecule, and Electron
    Based on the theory of existing aether composed of tiny magnetic particles, the current view of atomic structure would surely be affected. Below are only questions and possibilities to be offered to the collective imaginations of the readers.
    First of all, what is an electron? An electron could be the mass/energy necessary to displace one of the magnetic particles. Imagine a volume of these particles clinging together. If one could remove one of the particles from the center of this volume, all of the remaining particles would change position slightly to occupy the void or hold position of the void until the charge of electromotive potential between the void and an electron becomes near enough to be divided into two aether particles. Could the shift of a string of these particles be electricity?
    Could an electron be two aether particles squeezed into the volume of one and a positron a void in a volume the same size as one aether particle? The annihilation of the two oppositely charged particles emitting two photons when they collide leave the imagination to consider the possibility. Could electricity actually be the flow of aether particles? Or maybe it is circuit of spinning aether particles.
    Secondly, what is an atom or a proton? What would happen if these cold, clear magnetic particles could be provided enough energy to somehow expand like a popcorn kernel? Would each expanded particle take the same shape? Would these particles maintain any of their magnetic properties? With respect to fission and fusion, what form would these particles need to assume to account for the amount of energy needed to combine them and the amount of energy released when they are divided? Could such a particle ever be restored to original form? Could a proton be an entity of a completely different origin? Could the colliding waves of electromagnetic energy cause such an entanglement of the tiny, cold, clear, and magnetic particles that they form a proton?
    Chemistry says light or electromagnetic waves colliding with an atom, causes the electrons to raise their orbit, then the orbit energy decays and emit photons as the mass cools.
    I believe an electron may be two of these aether particles compressed to the volume of one. To do that would require a hole to appear as an absence of an aether particle. Perhaps that is a positron. The coincidence that when an electron and a positron collide to annihilate each other and emit two photons suggest investigation is warranted. Or if this aether exists, the release of the pressure containing the two particles fills the hole with one of the aether particles from the electron. When this action would happen it would disturb the polarity position of the surrounding particles causing a wave that is equal to the power of two photons.
    If a positron is the absence of one of the proposed aether particles the larger black holes would have greater positive electrical charge. Mass with excessive electrons would create a negative charge or an electrical potential between said mass and a black hole.
    Thirdly, what is a neutron? Could it be an entanglement of these tiny magnetic particles surrounding a proton in such a way that they behave as a part of the total mass of the atom? A neutron could then decay and release the energy as the particles composing a neutron return to the natural order of space away from the mass. Could all mass be composed of these basic particles of aether?
    NASA has announced that the northern lights could be the Earth’s magnetic field flux lines being stretched and snapping back to produce the light. Could a line stretching of aether particles until a hole appears (maybe a volume of a positron) is produced and collapses as wavelengths of light are emitted? The phenomenon of northern lights occurs 80,000 miles above the earth according to NASA. This is a much greater distance than the ionosphere, as the previously believed source.
    Scientists have recently discovered a ribbon circling the outer edge of our solar system. They believe it is composed of atom sized particles that are not dangerous to spacecraft. I would suggest it to possibly be aether shear between the solar field and the galactic field creating illumination. Such an area could be compared to the event horizon of a black hole trapping such particles.
    If the Universe is finite, what strength is the surface tension?
    Could the decomposition or cooling of mass to be the released aether particles be the addition of space? May this be why the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate? It seems to me as the Universe expands the surface areas of masses within the Universe are increased by the explosions of such masses. As the masses separate and add to the total surface areas of mass within the universe, the rate of particle decay to dark matter would increase to add to the Universe volume.
    From nanotechnology, to electromagnetic space propulsion, to repairing damaged cells, the applications of this theory could prove endless.
    Aristotle
    “The search for truth is in one way hard and in another way easy, for it is evident that no one can master it fully or miss it wholly. But each adds a little to our knowledge of nature, and from all the facts assembled there arises a certain grandeur.”
    In finishing this document, I am so reminded of a poser presented to me by a very dear friend. It reads as follows:
    Three friends find hotel with one room available. The clerk says, “The room rents for thirty dollars per night.” The friends each give the clerk ten dollars and go to their room and the clerk realizes he overcharged the people by five dollars. He asks the bellboy to carry five one dollar bills to their room and distribute the money evenly to the three occupants.
    The bellboy thinks about how he could distribute the money evenly and decides to solve the problem by pocketing two dollars and giving each individual person one dollar each.
    Now, this means each person paid nine dollars each for a total of twenty-seven dollars. Add the two dollars the bellboy pocketed and it totals twenty-nine dollars. Where did the dollar go from the thirty they originally paid? Clue: “It isn’t magic.”
    Math doesn’t lie however, it can be deceiving.
    Max Planck
    “A scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.”

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