Kuchli o’nlikdan o’rin olgan Kolumbiya universiteti. Surat Flickrdan olindi. Muallif: Barbara (Jorbasa)

AQShda har yili ta’lim tadqiqotlari bilan shug’ullanuvchi bir necha kompaniya tomonidan universitetlar reytingi e’lon qilinadi. Ammo bu reytinglar orasida farqlar mavjud. Ulardan biri eng yaxshi deb topgani ikkinchi bir reytingda hatto kuchli o’nlikdan o’rin olmagan bo’lishi ham mumkin.

Buning sabablari nimada? Bu reytinglar ishonchlimi? AQShning eng kuchli universiteti qaysi?

Bu savollarga oson javob topish qiyin. “U.S. News and World Report” e’lon qilgan ro’yxatda Garvard va Prinston universitetlari mamlakatning eng zo’r oliy o’quv yurtlari sifatida 1-o’ringa qo’yilgan. “Times Higher Education” reytingida esa 1-o’rinni Kaliforniya Texnologiya instituti egallagan. Bu ro’yxatda Garvard 4, Prinston esa 6-o’rin bilan kifoyalangan.

Washington Monthly” nashri San Diegodagi Kaliforniya universitetiga eng yuqori o’rinni bergan. Garvard, Prinston va Kaliforniya Texnologiya instituti bu ro’yxatning hatto kuchli o’nligiga ham kira olmagan. “Forbes”  jurnali Prinstonga 1-o’rinni bergan bo’lsa, ikkinchi o’ringa Vilyams kolleji munosib topilgan. Bu kollej boshqa reytinglarning birortasiga kirmagan.

(Reytinglarning to’liq ro’yxati maqola so’ngida ilova qilingan.)

Nega ro’yxatlar bir-biridan farq qiladi?

Ta’lim bo’yicha maslahatchi Bes Gilfillanning yozishicha, bunday reytinglar universitet tanlamoqchi bo’lgan talabalar uchun “xavfli bo’lishi mumkin”. Chunki bo’lajak talabalar o’quv yurtini tanlashda, odatda, ana shunday reytinglarga e’tibor berishadi. Aslida, diqqat qaratish lozim bo’lgan va reytinglarda aks etmagan boshqa jihatlar ham ko’p.

Reytinglarda farqlar ko’zga tashlanishining asosiy sababi ularni tuzuvchi tashkilotlar turli tanlov va o’lchov usullarini qo’llashidir. Masalan, “U.S. News and World Report” nashri universitetga qabul qilinish shartlarining qanchalik qiyinligiga asosiy e’tiborni qaratadi. Shuning uchun uning ro’yxatidan, odatda, eng qimmat va mashhur universitetlar o’rin oladi.

“Forbes” jurnali ro’yxatidan Vilyams kollejining uchrashiga sabab shuki, bu nashr universitetlarni tanlashda kichik kollejlarni ham e’tiborga oladi. Boshqa barcha reyting tuzuvchilari faqat katta universitetlarni o’rganadi.

Ayrim reytinglarda tadqiqotlar uchun ajratiladigan pullar va ularning samarasiga e’tibor qaratilsa, “Washington Monthly” nashri kam ta’minlangan talabalar uchun ajratiladigan grantlar miqdorini ham hisobga oladi. “Forbes” jurnali, shuningdek, universitet bitiruvchilarining qanchalik muvaffaqiyat qozonganiga ham e’tibor qaratadi.

(Reytinglarning to’liq ro’yxati maqola so’ngida ilova qilingan)

Eng yaxshi universitetni qanday topish mumkin?

Kollejga bora olish imkoniyatlari markazi rahbari Richard Vedderning aytishicha, reytinglarning hech biri Amerikaning eng zo’r universitetini aniqlab bera olmaydi. Chunki har bir talabaning istak va talablari turlicha va shuning uchun bittasiga eng ma’qul bo’lgan oliygoh ikkinchisiga yoqmasligi mumkin, deydi u. Vedder “New York Times” gazetasiga yozgan  maqolasida bo’lajak talabalarga maslahat berib, oliy o’quv yurtini tanlash jarayonida har bir talaba o’zining qiziqishlari, kelajak rejalari, joyning ahamiyati, moliyaviy imkoniyat va qabul bo’lish ehtimoli kabi masalalarni hisobga olishi kerakligini aytadi.

Reytinglarning to’liq ro’yxati:

U.S. News and World Report
http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/rankings/national-universities

#1: Harvard University and Princeton University
#3: Yale University
#4: Columbia University and University of Chicago
#6: Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University
#8: Duke University and University of Pennsylvania
#10: California Institute of Technology and Dartmouth College

Times Higher Education World University Rankings
http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2012-13/world-ranking

#1: California Institute of Technology
#2: Stanford University (tied with University of Oxford, UK)
#4: Harvard University
#5: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
#6: Princeton University
#9: University of California, Berkeley (#7: University of Cambridge, UK, #8: Imperial College London, UK)
#10: University of Chicago
#11: Yale University
#13: University of California, Los Angeles (#12: ETH Zurich, Switzerland)

Washington Monthly
http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/rankings_2012/national_university_rank.php

#1: University of California, San Diego
#2: Texas A&M University
#3: Stanford University
#4: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
#5: University of California, Berkeley
#6: University of California, Los Angeles
#7: Case Western Reserve University
#8: University of Washington, Seattle
#9: University of California, Riverside
#10: Georgia Institute of Technology, Main

Forbes Magazine/Center for College Affordability
http://www.forbes.com/top-colleges/

#1: Princeton University
#2: Williams College
#3: Stanford University
#4: University of Chicago
#5: Yale University
#6: Harvard University
#7: United States Military Academy
#8: Columbia University
#9: Pomona College
#10: Swarthmore College